MASLOW’S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS

In class we studied in detail about how Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs is used in advertising, following are a few examples of advertisements that conform to the different levels of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs.

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PHYSIOLOGICAL NEEDS

ria

This particular ad falls into the category of “Physiological Needs” of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs. Physiological needs are basic needs (food, water, medicine etc.) that are required by human beings for their basic survival. This ad is a perfect example as it shows that water is very important and it’s impossible to survive without it. The tag line itself says “Can’t LIVE without it” with special emphasis on LIVE. After all, water is a basic necessity for all living beings, people will always need it and thirst is something that people will always have.

SAFETY NEEDS

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This particular ad falls into the category of “Safety Needs” of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs. Safety needs are needs that ensure stability, comfort, physical safety etc. This ad for smoke detectors is a perfect example as it ensures its customers that by installing this product in their homes they will be safe from any threat of fire and can live comfortably without any fear. The tag line itself says “Life Saver” and is written inside Superman’s logo, which is a clear indication to consumers that this particular smoke detector will save you from fire and prevent any sort of physical harm just like Superman saves people and the world from evil. Consumers are ensured that they will be safe if they buy this product.

BELONGING NEEDS

BABYYY

This particular ad falls into the category of “Belonging Needs” of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs. Belonging needs are social needs like Friendship, group acceptance, intimacy, affection and love. This particular ad is a perfect example as it tries to show how Dreft laundry detergent is the best choice for babies. The ad portrays a baby lying down next to a blanket, the tag line is written at the bottom left in a small font “Cleaning as gentle as a mother’s touch”, by portraying this what the advertiser are trying to convey to the consumers is that by using dreft detergent, you show how much you truly love your baby (sense of belonging). Just how a mother’s touch is soft and full of affection, the detergent is soft and the best for their babies. This ad has smartly conformed to the belonging needs category from Maslow’s hierarchy of needs to lure mother’s into buying their product.

ESTEEM NEEDS

merc

This particular ad falls into the category of “Esteem Needs” of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs. Esteem needs are those needs that relate to our desire to be accomplished and useful like Self-respect, superiority, prestige, status, mastery, independence, dominance etc. This particular ad is a perfect example as it shows how Mercedes-Benz SLS AMG is not just an ordinary car, but is designed like a plane, in fact so much that it’s hard to differentiate between the two. Even the tag line says “You have to file a flight plan before leaving the driveway” which clearly emphasises that this isn’t merely a car, but a car that’s like an airplane, in terms of its design, speed and possibly every other thing. This ad perfectly expresses the esteem need because it is trying to tell it’s consumers that if they buy this car they’ll feel very prestigious. They’ll feel like they have a higher status on the road than others because their car is compared to a plane. Buying this car will make consumers feel superior, dominant and will take their self-esteem to the next level.

SELF-ACTUALIZATION NEEDS

army

This particular ad falls into the category of “Self-Actualization” needs of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs. Self-actualization needs are Self-fulfilment needs, needs that make a person realize personal potential, seek personal growth and peak experiences. This ad is a perfect example as it shows that if you join the U.S. army, you will achieve a sense of accomplishment. The tagline says “Being proud is strong. Making others proud is army strong.” By this the advertisers make it clear that by joining the army you will not just  be any ordinary strong person but you will make others around you proud and reach a different level of being strong. You will become a better, stronger and more powerful person. The text written right below the tag line also emphasizes on the fact that by joining the U.S army one can attain self-actualization, can become all that any human being would want to be. This ad fits the self-actualization need perfectly because it offers the viewers a chance to better themselves and become a complete individual. It gives them an opportunity to stand out and become an example for other individuals who are striving to attain self-fulfillment.

V.A.L.S (Values, Attitude and Lifestyle)

V.A.L.S is a Marketing and consulting tool that segments consumers based on personality traits.

  • It Sees personality as the motivation for behaviour.
  • Purchasing is the observable behaviour driven by internal factors.
  • Psychological dynamics which drive purchases.

Consumers are inspired by one of three primary motivations: ideals, achievement, and self-expression.

VALS

  • INNOVATORS (FORMELY ACTUALIZERS)

STEVE

STEVE JOBS

MALLYA

VIJAY MALLYA

The class of consumer at the top of the vals framework.  They are characterized by High income and high resource individuals for whom independence is very important. They have their own individual taste in things and are motivated in achieving the finer things in life.

BMW

An innovator is likely to buy a BMW, luxury watches etc.

  • THINKERS (FORMERLY FULFILLED)

XJXJ

NOAM CHOMSKY

 A well-educated professional is an excellent example of Thinkers in the vals framework. These are the people who have high resources and are motivated by their knowledge. These are the rational decision making consumers and are well informed about their surroundings. These consumers are likely to accept any social change because of their knowledge level.

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A thinker is likely to buy Branded shoes, Renowned books etc.

  • BELIEVERS

ANNA

ANNA HAZARE

 These consumers are the low-resource group of those who are motivated by ideals. They are conservative and predictable consumers who favour local products and established brands. Their lives are centred on family, community, and the nation. They have modest incomes.

BATA Believers are likely to buy local T.V. news and old and trusted brands like Bata, Rin etc.

  • ACHIEVERS

RNB

RANBIR KAPOOR

The achievers are mainly motivated by –  guess what –  Achievements. These individuals want to excel at their job as well in their family. Thus they are more likely to purchase a brand which has shown its success over time. The achievers are said to be high resource consumers but at the same time, if any brand is rising, they are more likely to adopt that brand faster.

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Achievers are likely to buy iPad, Low calorie domestic beer, Honda etc.

  • STRIVERS

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SHERLYN CHOPRA

Low resource consumer group which wants to reach some achievement are known as strivers. These customers do not have the resources to be an achiever. But as they have values similar to an achiever, they fall under the striver category. If a striver can gain the necessary resources such as a high income or social status then he can move on to becoming an achiever.

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A striver is likely to buy Playboy, Chevrolet, Coke classic

  • EXPERIENCERS

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HONEY SINGH

The group of consumers who have high resources but also need a mode of self-expression are known as Experiencers. Mostly characterized by young adults, it consists of people who want to experience being different. This class of consumers is filled up with early adopters who spend heavily on food, clothing and other youthful products and services.

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An experiencer is likely to buy Designer Jeans, Electric Guitar, Branded and stylish sportswear etc.

  • MAKERS

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WORKiNG CLASS FAMILY MAN

These consumers are the low-resource group of those who are motivated by self-expression. They are practical people who value self-sufficiency. They are focused on the familiar-family, work, and physical recreation-and have little interest in the broader world. As consumers, they appreciate practical and functional products.

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Maker Buys Comfortable Chair , Cushion, Air Coolers, Basic Shirts ( Non luxury), Filmfare Magazine, Budweiser Beer, NASCAR

  • SURVIVORS

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OLD AGE PENSION EARNERS

The class of consumers in the Vals framework with the least resources and therefore the least likely to adopt any innovation. As they are not likely to change their course of action regularly, they form into brand loyal customers. An example can include old age pension earners living alone for whom the basic necessities are important and they are least likely to concentrate on anything else.

MCJNC N Survivors are likely to buy Butter, Milk and Bread etc.

Advertisements

ADVERTISING GOALS & APPEALS

Numerous marketing strategies are used to increase sales. Advertisements are well thought and have specific goals behind them that target customers into buying their product. Some of the advertising goals are:

– Promote Brand Recall

– Instil brand preference

– Recall Attribute with Brand Name

– Scare the consumer into Action

– Social Branding

– Transformation

– Persuade the customer

– Direct response

– Define brand image

Following are a few examples of advertisements using the specific goals mentioned above:

  • AIRTEL – “Harr ek friend, zaroori hota hai”

AIRTEL 2

AIRTEL

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4WgP8sTCO2Q

We all remember this particular ad campaign airtel came out with, because of it’s popular and catchy jingle “Harr ek friend zaroori hota hai”

The goal of this advertisement was to promote Brand Recall. This strategy helps the product/service (airtel here) to stay in the minds of the consumers because of the constant reputation of its slogan.

  • DOVE SOAP

DDD

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Vi3w5V8Ex4U

This Dove beauty bar ad conducts an experiment that directly compares Dove soap to one of its leading competitors, Ivory. The woman in the ad uses test paper to show how ordinary soaps strip the skin saying, “If it can do that to test paper, imagine what it can do to your skin.” The ad concludes with grey text on a clean white background saying, “Dove doesn’t strip your skin like Ivory” and then moves to the tagline: “Dove is different”. The ad is focused on differentiating Dove from other soap bars and does so by the use of a direct comparison. The goal of this ad was to Instil Brand Preference among consumers, to tell them how dove should be preferred over other beauty bars and they should buy only dove.

 

  • ICICI PRUDENTIAL LIFE INSURANCE – “Per bande ache hai”

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https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D1Et_KvsL9w

The tag line of this advertisement says “Jo zimmedari nibhaate hain jataate nahin”, through this ad, marketers want to tell the consumers that they should go ahead (persuation) and secure their families by purchasing the life insurance. Hence, the goal of this popular ad is to persuade the Consumers. In this ad, the emotional appeal is likely to attract and persuade the consumers.

  • DOVE – Beauty Debate

KCMN

Such advertisements instil fear in the consumers and Scare them into action. These advertisements often create anxiety and hence, consumers are willing to take actions.

  • Iphone 4 –If you don’t have an Iphone, well you don’t have an Iphone

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CCC

This ad was extremely popular when Iphone 4 had been launched. Such ads Define the Brand Image of the product. The goal of the ad is to tell the consumers that having an Iphone 4 will make you branded, enhance your image, make you cooler than others, however if you don’t have it, means you don’t have anything at all. This strategy is effective in persuading consumers into buying products.

 AD APPEALS

Advertising Appeals – Through various appeals, advertising influence the prospects’ purchase decisions. For this purpose, taking the help of varying product features or attributes in their ad appeals, there is a constant effort made to influence consumer perception about the advertised product or brand.

Sex appeal

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Feel Good

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Humour

pedigree

Fear

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Slice Of Life

Y&R Tokyo ad-4-karate

Fantasy

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VISUAL ELEMENTS OF AN ADVERTISEMENT

  • General mood
  • LOGO
  • Shapes
  • Colour scheme
  • Light
  • Typeface

HEINZ

 

Creative Director : Brian Fraser/Simon Learman

Agency : Mccann-erickson London

Photographer : Kevin Summers

Photographing year : April 2007

The advertisement above for Heinz ketchup has a red backdrop, a classic bottle of Heinz ketchup horizontally sliced with a tomato on top. The text is given at the bottom in white and clear letters, it says “No one grows ketchup like Heinz.” This pretty much depicts a real life ketchup bottle. The combination of text and picture reveals insight into the values of the targeted consumer. Ketchup is generally loaded with sugar and preservatives, however the ketchup bottle, sliced like a ripe tomato, signifies freshness. Ketchup is made in a factory and by any means isn’t “grown,” however the text reads, “No one grows ketchup like Heinz.” By doing this, the advertisers are trying to illustrate that Heinz ketchup is not like any other ketchup which is simply produced in a factory but it is carefully and specially developed, first as seeds in the soil and all the way until bottling in the iconic Heinz bottle design. The message is simple and clear and all the focus is on the Heinz ketchup bottle. Not only are the advertisers attaching a nutritional aspect to ketchup, they are redefining ketchup– perhaps in an attempt to promote a healthier way of life and in an attempt to lure more consumers.

STORY

Very often many advertisements have a visual story to tell which often attracts customers. Following is an example:

sony-noise-canceling-headphones1

STORY COMPONENTS:

CHARACTERS:

Refers to the people in the ad and the personalities they seem to have. This ad displays an annoying kid playing a game boy with a loudspeaker for a head and a woman sitting in front of him in peace wearing the headphones

PLOT:

The event that is shown in the ad itself and the events that you imagine have occurred before, or will occur after that moment. The plot here is clear, it shows that by using Sony Noise Cancelling Headphones one can avoid loud unwanted noise.

 SETTING:

Where and when the scene shown in the ad takes place. In the above advertisement, it is clear that the scene is shown inside an aircraft.

SYMBOLS:

An object that stands for something more than itself. In the above ad, the annoying kid playing a game boy is shown with a loudspeaker for a head. By doing this the advertisers were trying to depict that the boy and the sounds from his game boy are extremely noisy and loud, almost as loud as a loudspeaker.

SUB-TEXT:

A meaning that goes beyond the surface meaning suggested in the ad. In this ad, The Sony MD2 Noise cancelling headphones drastically reduce unwanted sounds, so you can travel to your quiet place. I think the product benefit that Sony is trying convey with this ad is loud and clear. It displays an annoying kid playing a game boy with a loudspeaker for a head and a woman sitting in front of him in peace wearing the headphones. The advertisers try to tell the consumers that if they buy these headphone, no unwanted noise can disturb them and they can be at peace.

V.I.P.S FORMULA FOR ADVERTISING

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Visibility (Must be easily noticed): This ad is very visually informing, and is noticed easily because of its creative approach it does not come straight out and say, “Think about who all has touched this thing you are now touching.” Instead it uses hands to represent slings on a bus with the slogan “Whose hand are you holding?” It may not say it in words, but this ad is very blunt.

Identity (Identity of the advertiser must be obvious) : This has also been successfully fulfilled in the ad above as the classical green and white bottle on the bottom right makes it clear that it’s a Dettol advertisement. The message of the ad is clear as it uses hands to represent slings on a bus with the slogan “Whose hand are you holding?” which means that the advertiser is trying to tell us that you never know who has held or touched a bar in a bus or a door handle. You never know where that person has been or what else they have touched. We come across millions of germs daily and we can fight them simply by using Dettol’s hand sanitizer.

Promise (The offer must be made clearly): The ad promises that Dettol Hand Sanitizer will instantly kill 99.99% of germs.

Single-mindedness: (Concentrate on the purpose): The above ad concentrates on one purpose: assuring hundred percent purity and fighting germs!

AD AGENCY RESEARCH

     mccann-erickson

McCann Erickson – or just plain McCann as it is increasingly better-known – still claims to be the biggest worldwide agency network by global footprint.

The modern McCann Erickson is the result of a 1930 merger in New York between two pioneer agencies, The H. K. McCann Company, which opened in 1912, and The Erickson Company, founded in 1902. The two agency principals themselves were industry visionaries whose contributions encompassed establishing the core general practices and central ethical guidelines of the industry. This included their roles in helping to launch the American Association of Advertising Agencies and the Audit Bureau of Circulations.

From the beginning, The H.K. McCann Company declared itself dedicated to creating a multiple office network built on collaboration and shared best-in-class resources designed to help all of its clients maximize their growth potential.

This can be scene through their timeline –

  • 1902: Alfred Erickson forms his own advertising agency in New York City.
  • 1912: Harrison King McCann, along with four partners, launches H.K. McCann Co, and introduces the credo “Truth Well Told”.
  • 1927: McCann opens offices in Paris, Berlin and London.
  • 1930: McCann and Erickson merge companies.
  • 1935: Latin American offices open in Buenos Aires and Rio de Janeiro.
  • 1957: McCann became the first U.S. advertising agency to bill $100 million in TV and radio sales.
  • 1959: Australian office opens, as well as European offices in Italy, Netherlands and Switzerland.
  • 1960: The company is organised into four independent operating units reporting into McCann Erickson, Inc. (later to become the Interpublic Group in 1961). Office opens in Japan.
  • 1964: The Spanish government of Francisco Franco hires the agency to improve its image in the United States.
  • 1973: McCann International and McCann US reunite into the single agency McCann Erickson Worldwide.
  • 1997: McCann Worldgroup formed, includes: McCann Erickson Worldwide, Universal McCann and what would become MRM//McCann, Momentum, McCann Healthcare Worldwide, Weber Shandwick and FutureBrand.

truth-inset

McCann Erickson has created some of the best-known and most iconic advertising campaigns of the last century. Today, as innovation moves across every boundary – from disciplines to geography to the state of client relationships – McCann continues to define the direction of the advertising business as a whole. The McCann Erickson family of agencies is now one of the world’s largest and most integrated and coordinated global marketing networks.

It operates in 180 offices in more than 120 countries and boasts a client roster that includes preeminent global marketers and many of the world’s most famous brands. The agency is a unit of McCann Worldgroup.

wg-logo

McCann Worldgroup delivers marketing solutions that transform brands and grow businesses. The company is comprised of a collaborative roster of best-in-class agencies that emphasize creativity, innovation, and performance, including McCann Erickson (the world’s largest advertising agency network); MRM//McCann (digital marketing/relationship management); Momentum (experiential marketing); McCann Health (professional/dtc communications); Craft Worldwide (global production); UM (media management); Weber Shandwick (public relations) and FutureBrand (consulting/design).

Popular clients include : Nikon, mastercard, solvel et titut, nimble money, metro trains, corelle, homepride.

Latest Advertisements :

MasterCard : One more day of travel

Nikon : I am generation image

Nimble Money : The phone bill

Nescafe : The comedian

References :

http://www.adbrands.net/us/mccann_us.htm

http://mccann.com/work/

http://mccann.com/about/story/

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/McCann_Erickson

COPY-WRITING : Language Of Advertising

Copy-writing is writing copy for the purpose of advertising or marketing. The copy is meant to persuade someone to buy a product, or influence their beliefs.

Following are examples of advertisements that grab the consumers attention by playing with words by means of:

  • Metaphors : Similarities between the primary (= the product) and secondary subjects (A and B) are created and not pre-existing.

Werther_Comfort_Candy_first_frame

In the above advertisement, Werther’s used the metaphor “What comfort tastes like”  to associate eating its candy products with “comfort food,” to make consumers feel good about eating them. Chocolate and caramel lovers are led to believe that eating the candy can provide a break from their everyday stresses and be able to experience a pleasurable sensation.

  • Simile : A simile sets up a relation of similarity between two referents. A is explicitly compared to B. Use of like or as if in the wording, to show that it is not literal.

rock1

 

rock2

The advertisement given above is the perfect example of a simile used in an ad. The tag line of Chevy Silverado,  emphasizes the truck’s toughness by claiming it’s “Like A Rock”. The word like has also been used.

  • Metonymy: A figure of speech in which one word or phrase is substituted for another with which it is closely associated (such as “crown” for “royalty”). It involves taking something related to stand for something. A is substituted by B on the basis of contiguity.

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In this ad the viewer can assume that using Marlboro will make them handsome,confident and have a better flavorful life. The visual message uses metonymy to substitute something bad, smoking, for something good.

  • Pun : Frequently used in commercial advertising to attract the reader’s attention.The advertiser challenges the reader to grasp the double meaning conveyed by the message, as if it were a sort of puzzle (+ humour).

awesome-ads-for-beer15

The ad given above for light beer has a pun intended. As the beer glass is shaped like a bulb i.e.light, hence “LIGHT beer”

  • Rhyme : Repetition of ending sounds or Similarity of all the last sounds of two words, from the ending of the last stressed syllable on.

nose

The tag line in the above ad, “A nose in need deserves, Puffs Plus indeed” is rhyming. This makes the ad catchy, memorable and funny, and this it will lure more and more customers.

  • Assonance : It entails the repetition of the same vowel sounds in stressed syllables.

iphone-4

The text in the above advertisement for Iphone 4s reads. “iGo iGive iPlan iGet iMove iDo iLive”, this is a perfect example for assonance as the vowel “I” is bein grepeated continuously throughout.

REFLECTIVE NOTE

After completing the given assignments for the Fashion Advertising and PR module I have learnt how advertisements use different goals and appeals to lure their customers. It helped me to understand how different ad agencies use different appeals and strategies. I went through a lot of examples and identified their goals and appeals. This module made me aware of the use of Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs in advertising. It helped me to categorize consumers based on V.A.L.S. It also widened my knowledge about different ad agencies. I have been able to successfully complete these assignments with the help of the brief and guidance given in class. I went through different advertisements on the internet and referred to my notes and categorised each advertisement on the basis of goals, appeals, V.I.P.S, Maslow’s hierarchy of needs etc. Through the means of this module I was able to comprehend communication strategy as applied to brand advertising, public relations, creative development and media use / plan. This module made taught me a lot about the advertising world. I now recognize different advertisements shown on the T.V according to their appeals, their goals and messages. I am now able to make advertisements with all the important elements. I truly thank Ms. Meha Jaiswal for being the perfect tutor and for making us understand this module so well. It is one of my favourite modules.